1. Basic thesis


1.1.      A space is the fundamental substance („raw material“) from which everything is composed. All bodies and all phenomena in the Universe have their origin in the physical properties of space. A space is the cause, the originator, the creator, the participant, the mover, and the mediator of all physical phenomena.

1.2.      The physical properties of space are the primary (fundamental) cause of all physical phenomena. Bodies are spatial anomalies. Phenomena describe the behavior of bodies. Physical rules [1] dictate what consequence must occur in space after a certain cause. A physical rule must apply (must be valid) to all physical bodies in all frames of reference of space (Universe).

1.3.      When we attribute its correct (true, real) physical properties to space, then a logical and uninterrupted chain of phenomena results in the fact that the Universe must look as it does and behave in all frames of reference of space according to the rules described in this book.


1.4.      A space is non-homogeneous, spherical, non-symmetrical, dynamic. A space completely fills the entire Universe. A space is a fractal system of physical densities and physical pressures. A space forms a unity of particles with characteristics of pressure highs and pressure lows. A space is continuous, and all phenomena within it are continuous. The fundamental physical phenomenon in space is sedimentation.

1.5.      Non-homogeneous means that the density of space [2] is different in every region and at every moment and cannot be the same in two regions. Non-homogeneity of space is the fundamental (prime) cause of all physical phenomena.

1.6.      Spherical means that through the process of sedimentation, space continuously „sorts” individual bodies (particles) according to their spatial density and pushes them into non-enclosed density spheres (layers) to which they belong based on their spatial density. Non-symmetric and non-closed spheres of density create a kind of spherical „onions” in space, composed of non-closed layers with increasing or decreasing density of space (Fig. 2.1.). A space is spherical, and all bodies within it are spherical. [3]

1.7.      Non-symmetrical (asymmetrical) means that no body or region in space can not be divided into two identical parts with identical properties. [4]

1.8.      Dynamic means that the density of space is changing in every area at every moment. The physical processes occurring in space cannot be stopped or reversed.


1.9.      A non-homogeneous space differs only in its density. It has no other option. Density of space is a fundamental physical unit. The density of space is always a positive number. The maximum density of space is finite (density floor). „Empty space“ (so-called „vacuum“) does not exist. (by definition)

1.10.   To different densities of space correspond to different physical pressures in inverse proportion. Pressure (temperature) is a fundamental physical unit. (by definition) The greater the density of space, the lower the pressure within it [5] . The lower the density of space, the higher the pressure within it. Pressure always point from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. (basic rule)


1.11.   From the difference in densities in (non-homogeneous) space, a difference in pressures arises in inverse proportionality. From the difference in pressures, a surface emerges (is created, is formed) in space. The surface is a pressure organ. Pressure on the surface induces movement. Movement increases the pressure impulse, by which one surface can influence another surface. Pressure, surface, and movement are consequences of spatial non-homogeneity and cannot be separated from each other. (basic rule)


1.12.   The existence of particles is logical consequence of spatial non-homogeneity. A particle is a fundamental „simple“ body in space. (by definition) A particle is a non-homogeneous, non-symmetric open body bounded by a continuous set of dynamic surfaces of (fractal) spiral toroids. [6] A particle begins on the outer (centrifugal) side of its surface layer (shell) and ends at the center of the body. (by definition)

1.13.   A particle is a physical pressure system. A particle can have the character of pressure high or pressure low. Each pressure high has a surface (shell) made of pressure lows. Each pressure low has a surface (shell) made of pressure highs. In the center of each pressure high, there is a channel with low pressure (cumulus). In the center of each pressure low, there is a channel with high pressure (eye). A space forms a continuous unity of particles with the character of pressure highs and pressure lows. One cannot exist without the other. The continuous unity of particles forming space is called plasma. (by definition)

1.14.   Every particle has five fundamental parts (Figure 3.3. b). Beneath the outer shell, there are two (non-symmetrical = unequal) hemispheres („northern“ and „southern“), separated from each other by an equatorial countercurrent. The hemisphere with lower pressure has a smaller volume and forms the tip of the particle. The central channel (V) passes through the center of the particle. All parts are continuously interconnected, and a change in any of them is reflected in all the remaining ones.


1.15.   The surface area (shell) of an particle is a necessary condition for the existence of that particle. The density of the space within the shell must differ from the density of the space inside the particle as well as from the density of the space in the environment surrounding the particle. The shell of the particle is a continuous part of space (environment), but for clarity, we assign it to the particle. The shell defines the particle (spatial anomaly) from space (environment) and also from other particles. Between two particles bounded by their shells, there must always be space that separates these particles from each other.

1.16.   The physical surface (shell) of an body (particle) has volume. The shell of a particle has two sides. Centripetal (directed toward the center of the body and centrifugal (directed away from the center of the body). The pressure from the centripetal and centrifugal sides of the shell is always different. In low pressures, the centripetal pressure acting from the shell is higher than the centrifugal pressure (Fig. 3.3. c). In high pressures, the centrifugal pressure acting from the shell is higher than the centripetal pressure.


1.17.   Simple bodies (particles) join into clusters and together create composite bodies. Due to the fractal nature of space, it is possible to consider the composite body of particles as a simple particle in a higher reference frame. All particles are governed, in all frames of reference of space, by the same simple rules, valid for fractal physical pressure systems. [7]

1.18.   The body cannot be separated from space, and space cannot be separated from the body. The space (composed of particles) that surrounds the body (also particle) is called the environment. (by definition) The environment can exist in two states. The environment can have the character of low pressure or character of high pressure. With respect to the environment, the body can have the character of low pressure or high pressure. A body that has a similar density to the environment becomes a part of the environment (Figure 4.5). All changes inside the body are the result of environmental pressure on its surface. The bodies are „held together“ by environmental pressure. [8]

1.19.   The interface between space (environment) and the body is not sharp. The environment in which the body is currently situated (located) determines the properties of the body. The body has no influence on its own properties. Because space is dynamic, the properties of the body are different in every location in space and at every moment. The properties of the body cannot be transferred from one region to another region. Bodies with static (unchanging) properties do not exist. No two bodies can have identical properties. The properties of the body cannot be assessed separately from the environment. (basic rule)


1.20.   The main cause movement of bodies in spherical space is the process of sedimentation. The fundamental trajectory in spherical space is a fractal spiral. The body always moves in the direction from which the least pressure is exerted on its surface. (basic rule) Allowing oneself to be carried by the current is the most efficient way of movement. (basic rule)

1.21.   A particle that has a similar spatial density to the particles of the environment (with which it is „neighboring“) is a continuous part of the environment and moves „synchronously“ with the surrounding particles. A particle that has a different space density than the space density of the environment in which it is located moves relative to the particles of the environment and has the character of a physical wave. [9] The movement of a body is always the result of the pressure of the environment on its surface area. [10]


1.22.   Space has a strictly material essence. Matter consists of two fundamental components. Matter = plasma + mass. (by definition) Plasma is a volumetrically predominant form of matter. Plasma fills the entire Universe (VSU) continuously and without the residue. Plasma = continuous unity of high-pressure and low-pressure particles. The particles are open (unenclosed) physical pressure systems that can continuously change their spatial density. The particles are rotating, have a central channel (V), but have not a nucleus. Rotating (dynamic) particles constantly transform themselves from one state to another. No two particles are identical. Plasma is not mass! Plasma never has mechanical weight! (by definition)

1.23.   Atoms are mass. (by definition) Atoms constitute an exceedingly small volumetric component of matter. Atoms always occur in a mixture with plasma. Atoms are closed bodies (composed of unenclosed particles) that maintain their spatial density within a certain range of external temperatures (pressures). Atoms do not rotate, do not have a central channel, but have a nucleus. The spatial density of an atom's nucleus reaches (always) the density floor. Each atom is different. No two atoms are the same. Under exceptional conditions, atoms can exhibit the illusion of (mechanical) weight (Chapter 7). [11]

1.24.   Depending on the view of the surface area, bodies composed of atoms can be understood as mechanical bodies or physical bodies. The mechanical surface of a body composed of atoms is the sum of the surface areas of all atoms forming the surface of the body. (by definition) In the environment of material liquids and gases, a fixed mechanical surface area does not exist. The physical surface of a body composed of atoms is the sum of the surface areas of all the atoms forming the body (including atoms inside the body). (by definition)


1.25.   Physics is the science about space. Since bodies are spatial anomalies, physics is also the science of bodies and their mutual relations. The relationships between space and bodies (spatial anomalies) and the relationships between bodies with each other (through space) are governed by the fractal geometry of spherical space. Due to the fractal nature of space and all bodies in it, the fractal geometry of spherical space is able to describe and explain all physical phenomena at all size levels of space. [12] No „theories“ are allowed in „Physics of space“.

1.26.   Every physical phenomenon must have a cause. An effect without a cause is meaningless. The basic cause of all physical phenomena is the non-homogeneity of space. If a physical phenomenon contradicts „common sense“, it cannot be considered valid. Using mathematical methods based on Euclidean space and the Cartesian system leads to errors in spherical space. The „proofs” by using these methods is insufficient. [13]

1.27.   Each physical frame of reference must contain, in addition to bodies, also the material environment in which the physical phenomenon takes place. The environment always forms  a superior reference frame for the body. The body cannot be a reference frame for the environment in which it is located. The properties of bodies and their movement must always be related to a certain frame of reference. The Universe forms the superior (universal) reference frame (VSU) for all other (subordinate) reference frames. [14]

1.28.   Each body must have („non-zero“) surface area and volume. A body or an area in space cannot acquire two physically contradictory properties at the same time. [15] A body cannot be in two places at the same time. Two bodies cannot be in the same area (same space) at the same time. No two bodies can be identical, nor have identical properties.

1.29.   Bodies (spatial anomalies) are a continuous part of space and cannot exist outside of space. Bodies cannot be „removed“ from space. Bodies cannot be „inserted“ into space. Bodies cannot „appear”, nor can they „disappear”. No body or phenomenon can be „neglected“ in fractal space. Bodies do not arise or disappear, they only transform. (basic rule)

1.30.   There is no empty region (the so-called vacuum) in space. There is no fixed (static) region in space. There is no region in space that is homogeneous, or where linearity and symmetry apply. No area can be isolated (separated) from (continuous) space.

1.31.   All physical quantities are always positive. Negative numbers, zero, infinity, point, straight line, plane, attraction of bodies, material point, vacuum, time, particles with static properties (electrons, protons...) are false (immaterial) illusions that do not exist in the real (material) world and they cannot be used to replace physical bodies or attribute properties to physical bodies using these false illusions. By adding these immaterial illusions to the real (material) physical system, it becomes absurd, it ceases to make sense from a physical point of view. The use of these false illusions or their derivatives is prohibited in „Physics of space“.

1.32.   Only the present exists in space. All events that took place no longer exist and cannot be return. All events that will occur in the future do not yet exist. Where is no past, is no beginning, where is no future, is no end. [16]

1.33.   No physical phenomenon can be expressed (described) completely and exactly. No physical phenomenon can repeat itself twice in the same form. There is no absolute method of measuring anything. „Physics of space“ is not an exact science.


1.34.   Note 1.1. All physical phenomena in the Universe (VSU) are a consequence of the physical properties of space. Inside (VSU) there cannot exist a (subordinate) area (bounded by the shell) which would be a permanent source of pressure (heat). For (VSU) itself, it is true that SOMETHING cannot be taken from (VSU), nor can SOMETHING be put there. All pressure phenomena that take place in (VSU) also remain there. The total sum of pressure does not change in (VSU). The physical properties of space do not change. The temperature (pressure) floor does not change.

1.35. Reality and illusion, (SOMETHING x NOTHING)


1.35.   A necessary condition for an objective study of the physical properties of the Universe (nature) is the ability to critically check the process by which we obtain information about the external world (the world outside our body).

1.36.   The external world consists of physical space. Our body (and our brain) is also a continuous part of this space. The external world cannot be physically stored in the brain. Only the illusion (image) of the external world that our senses give us can be stored in the brain. We also take on other people's illusions.

1.37.   Physical space has a strictly material nature. The existence of matter is a consequence of the physical properties of space. Matter (plasma + atoms) continuously and completely fills the entire Universe. Matter cannot be created, matter cannot be destroyed. Matter exists and transforms itself from one state to another.

1.38.   When we call the matter SOMETHING, then idea (illusion) in our brain is only NOTHING. SOMETHING always comes from SOMETHING. SOMETHING cannot come from NOTHING. SOMETHING has volume and surface area. SOMETHING can act on another SOMETHING only by acting the pressure of its surface area on another surface area. [17] SOMETHING has physical properties and is subject to the rules of the fractal spherical geometry of space.

1.39.   The illusions in our brain are NOTHING. They are only an „image“ of SOMETHING. Illusions need a material carrier, but illusions (information) themselves do not have a material nature. NOTHING has no volume and surface. NOTHING has no any physical effect on SOMETHING. NOTHING (illusions, fabrications, „theories“) has no physical properties and is not governed by any rules.


1.40.   The process of learning about the external world has several stages. We first examine the bodies of the external world with our senses. Then we name the body or phenomenon. We store the concept (term, name) and the information assigned to it (properties of the body and its behavior) in the brain as an illusion of a body or an illusion of a phenomenon. If a body or phenomenon is not named, it cannot be „grasped“ with thoughts, worked with and shared with other people. [18]

1.41.   With material bodies that we can directly „touch and smell“ with our senses, there is a lower risk that the difference between the illusion (picture) of the body „in our brain“ and the real body in the space „outside our brain“ is too different. If the illusion in our brain coincides with a real body or phenomenon in space, it can be said that it is a „illusion true“. [19]

1.42.   When the illusion of a body in our brain differs from a body in space „outside our brain“, or even in space there is no such body or phenomenon, we speak of a „illusion false“.

1.43.   For bodies or phenomena that are beyond our senses because they are too small, too large, or too distant, we have to rely on some devices (instruments), and take over the illusions of other people (scientists) who have such devices. There is a great risk that some individual was based on false historical foundations or misinterpreted the information from the instruments. His illusions are false. Yet such illusions false are adopted and propagated for various reasons. [20]

1.44.   A illusion true may (or may not) give rise to another illusion true. A illusion true cannot arise from a illusion false. If we start from incorrect assumptions (illusions false), we cannot get the right results (illusions true).


1.45.   „Gravity“ (so-called attraction of bodies) is the result of a tragic illusion false where the „attractive force“ is located inside the body (perpetuum mobile). Bodies are not the source of any forces! Mechanical weight is not a consequence of an attraction of Earth! Nature cannot attract (pull), nature can only press (push)!

1.46.   „Vacuum“ = „homogeneous“, static, empty space. NOTHING that has volume. „Zero” sparse space = infinite pressure. The infinite pressure will crush everything in the Universe. The „vacuum“ shell must have an „infinite“ density. But the density of space is finite.

1.47.   „Mass point“ = an absurd body with no volume and no surface area (NOTHING). The point cannot move. The point cannot have mechanical weight. Every „mass point“ regardless of its (imaginary) „weight“ always has an „infinite“ density. The process of sedimentation of „mass points“ cannot be imagined in a „homogeneous“ vacuum. [21]


1.48.   Current „physics“ is still based on mechanics and adopts its false illusions. The mechanics cannot be changed, but the origin of the false illusions it operates on can be explained. Mechanics is a separate discipline and must be completely separated from physics. Physics must be built on real (true) foundations!

1.49.   The mechanical „laws“ work (approximately) only in the limited frame of reference of the material core of a planet with a solid surface, in a small area (where the illusion of linearity can be applied), below the stratopause, for solid mechanical bodies that are one or more density layer away above the density layer to which it belongs due to its density of space. In Universe (above the planet's stratopause), mechanical „laws“ do not work. The physical rules described in this book apply throughout the Universe (VSU) to all bodies (plasma and mass) in all frames of reference at (all size levels), including complex biological systems.

1.50.   Universe is not a mechanical system and is not governed by mechanical principles (so-called Newton's „laws“) or their derivatives. A space (Universe) is a physical system of densities and pressures and is governed by the rules of the fractal spherical geometry of space, described in this book. [22]


1.51.   Note 1.2. Fractal physical pressure systems are governed by simple rules in all reference frames of space (Universe). This makes them easier to analyze.

1.52.   The denser the space, the lower the pressure in it. The sparse the space, the higher the pressure in it. Pressure always spreads (in a spiral) from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure. The driving force behind all physical phenomena in space is always high pressure. Every physical pressure system has (must have) five basic parts that always have the same function.

1.53.   When in some physical frame of reference are regions with a small volume and high density of space surrounded by regions with a large volume and low density of space, we know where the driver of physical processes is. [23]

[1] It is necessary to distinguish the „physical rules“, described in this book, from Newton's „mechanical laws“.

[2] The concept of „physical density” in this text is not derived from the illusion of mechanical weight! It is not a ratio of the mechanical weight and volume of an mechanical body. This quantity has no unit. For the purposes of this book, it is not necessary to establish something like this.

The term physical pressure does not mean mechanical pressure, derived from the action of mechanical force on a mechanical surface. From now on, the concept of density and pressure refers only to their physical nature in the book.  

[3] The term „spherical“ (or „sphere-shaped“) does not capture the essence of the geometry of spherical space, yet it is used in the book for simplicity. In a non-homogeneous and non-symmetrical space, spheres (or other symmetrical objects) do not exist. This is not the so-called „curved“ linear (flat, virtual) Euclidean space. In a spherical space, linearity (illusion false of linearity) does not exist in any form or any reference frame. Idea that space can be divided into „infinitely small“ linear parts is incorrect and leads to errors.

[4] Symmetry can only be applied according to a linear line or a linear plane. In spherical space, linearity does not exist, so there is no symmetry.

[5] It is not a mechanical pressure derived from the illusion of weight. Do not confuse the natural pressure systems with mechanical pressure vessels! Do not confuse natural physical bodies with mechanical machines! Mechanical machines have a (temporary) internal source of pressure (which must, however, be supplied from the outside). Physical bodies (particles) have no (permanent) internal source of pressure (heat). It is necessary to distinguish the sensory perception of heat from the concept of heat in the physical sense.

[6] The fundamental surface in space is a spiral toroid. A spiral toroid is an open surface formed by the rotation of an open (fractal) spiral around an area („axis“) that doesn't lie on this spiral. In the case of a particle, is the „axis“ formed by the central channel (V), which is also composed of a spiral toroids. This makes it much more difficult to imagine the mentioned phenomena or to represent them graphically. The term shell is used because the surface of the particle partially resembles the spiral calcareous shell of a marine snail.

[7] The current geometry of fractal systems is limited to plane curves. In planar fractal curves, the basic element is often a (fractal 1D) spiral co-creating another larger (fractal 1D) spiral. In a fractal spherical (3D) space composed of particles, the basic element is (fractal 3D) particle co-creating another larger (fractal 3D) particle. Geometrically very complex (unclosed) surfaces are created.

The set of rules that govern space can be called „fractal geometry of dynamic spiral surfaces of space“ = (GDSPP). This „geometry“ has no imaging apparatus. Visualization of (3D) fractal pressure systems in spherical space by the methods of Euclidean geometry is practically impossible in its complexity. The space is dynamic. Both the bodies and the surfaces that make them up are „fuzzy“ and constantly changing. The book shows simplified diagrams of pressure systems. It is up to the reader to gradually create their own spatial idea (image).

[8] Physical bodies are not held together by any „internal forces“. In the book (for the sake of approximating current terminology), it is occasionally mentioned that physical bodies are not sources of any forces. The „Physics of space” knows no mechanical force derived from the illusion false of weight.

[9] Pressure spreads in waves. It is necessary to distinguish between physical (3D) waves and functions waves (e.g., 1D sinusoids). Each physical wave has a back, a head, a forehead and an eye. The eye is in the middle of the head. The back is always longer than the forehead. The head of the wave forms a pressure barrier in space (Fig. 6.3.).

[10] Pressure of the environment (environmental pressure) is the sum of pressure impulses of the surface areas of environmental particles on the surface area of a body. The exchange of pressure between two open dynamic pressure systems (bodies) is possible only through the particles of the space between them.  

[11] The illusion false of mechanical weight occurs only in the frame of reference of a planet with a solid (mechanical) surface, below the stratopause for bodies composed of atoms (mechanical bodies) that are one or more density layers above the density layer to which they belong. The illusion false of mechanical weight can also be defined as the centripetal movement of a mechanical body stopped by a „stable mechanical surface” or as „stopped sedimentation“ of mass body on the planet (Fig. 7.8.). Weight is a mechanical quantity that has no meaning in the „Physics of space”.

The illusion of mechanical weight of mechanical bodies is not a consequence of any attraction! The illusion of weight is different at every point in space and at every moment (Fig. 7.8., Fig. 7.9.). The weight of the mechanical body determines the area in space in which the body is currently located. Weight does not exist in the universal reference frame of the Universe (VSU).

[12] All natural physical pressure systems are fractal in nature and follow the same simple rules at all magnitude levels. This means that physical phenomena that are „invisible“ to us and our devices due to their „smallness“ can be observed in their often „gigantic“ analogues.

[13] „Today’s scientists have substituted mathematics for experiments, and they wander off through equation after equation, and eventually build a structure which has no relation to reality.” Nikola Tesla.

[14] Frame of reference = a shell-bounded area in (fractal) space in which the physical event takes place and to which the movement of bodies is related. (VSU) = reference frame of the entire Universe. Above (VSU) no other frame of reference exists (by definition). (VSU) forms a continuous, unclosed, dynamic fractal physical surface.

[15] For example, it cannot be argued that in the middle of the planet there is a high pressure (temperature) that is trying to „tear apart“ the planet, while at the same time, in the same region, there is an „attractive force“ that holds the planet together.

[16] The illusion false of time is a human invention, residing only in our brains. Time is a virtual mechanical unit speculative in nature. Time is neither the cause nor the effect of any physical phenomenon. Time has no material essence. Time has no surface area. Time is NOTHING.

[17] It can be sensory difficult to register pressure or shell in space. It is easiest for our senses and devices to register movement. The movement is the result of acting pressure of one shell on another shell (relationship - pressure, surface, movement). From this point of view, it can be said that the movement of SOMETHING can only cause SOMETHING. NOTHING has no surface area and cannot cause SOMETHING to move.

[18] Vague terms become a source of mistakes and illusions false. Exact definitions of some terms can be found in the introduction.

[19] This is not to say that the universally accepted „illusion truth “ cannot be wrong (false). Human senses are not perfect and can easily be „fooled“. Even a phenomenon that has been experienced a thousand times (e.g., the illusion of the weight of bodies) can be attributed („by science“) to a false cause („earth's attraction“). Once a illusion false becomes a part of official science and school syllabus, it is very difficult to get rid of it.

[20] For some basic research, there are only a few very expensive instruments that only a „select“ few have access to. Information from instruments can be misinterpreted or deliberately distorted in order to obtain funds for further „research“ or to confirm the correctness of some „theory“.

[21] The „theoretical bodies“ vacuum and mass point are the result of the use of absurd mathematical symbols in „physics“. „Mass point“ and „vacuum“ is a complete denial of the material nature of the Universe. Nevertheless, the mass point and the vacuum are one of the basic bodies in the so-called „theoretical physics“, which is governed by the rule that no rules apply to false illusions (theories, inventions, fantasies).

[22] Default properties (illusions false) of the mechanical world: The mechanical world is homogeneous, flat, symmetrical, static. Default properties (illusions truth) of the physical world: The physical world is non-homogeneous, spherical, non-symmetrical, dynamic. The basic (default) views of these two worlds are completely opposite and cannot be united by any mathematical-physical „tricks“. Kilogram, meter and second are mechanical units that have no importance in the „Physics of space“.

[23] When a small dense „grain“ of a planet's mass core (low pressure) is surrounded by a huge volume of sparse space (high pressure), we know where the (centripetal) pressure is, that holds the planet together, rotates with it, and is the cause of the hot center of its mass core.