## 2.
Geometry of space
## 2.1. Euclidean geometry,
Euclidean space
2.1. The fact that we are „small ants“ living on a huge sphere led to the false illusion of a flat Earth. Euclidean geometry, has grown on this illusion, and accompanies us „from cradle to grave“. We cannot imagine that space could be divided or described differently. We believe that Euclidean geometry is universal (applicable throughout the Universe), that it can describe the entire Universe and all phenomena within it. This is a false illusion. [1]
2.2.
„
2.3.
„
2.4.
The division of Euclidean space does not stem
from natural forces (Figure 2.1. a). Euclidean space is divided
based on (virtual) orthogonal linear axes (x, y, z)
into identical (virtual) homogeneous, static cubes, depicted in
the same gray color. The position and volume of each cube can
be precisely determined. Cubes are closed bodies, sharing their
(virtual) surfaces, and it’s unclear what separates them from
each other. Cubes can be further divided into increasingly smaller,
identical, symmetrical, and homogeneous units.
2.5.
In mechanics and the resulting „physics“ working
with the false illusion of linear (flat, disconnected) Euclidean
space, bodies are separate from space. Space is not considered
a (composite) body. The properties of bodies are independent of
their position in space. There can be two (or more) bodies with
identical, static properties. Bodies are the source of „forces“
that emanate from them throughout their existence (perpetual motion machine). There is absurdity here: empty
space = „vacuum“ and an absurd body without volume and surface
= „material point“ and others. ## 2.6. Spherical geometry
2.6.
2.7. In spherical space, it is impossible to find two identical areas, two identical bodies, or two identical trajectories. In spherical space, it is impossible to find two identical or identically repeating events. Spherical space is non-inertial. Obr. 2.1.
2.8.
2.9. Spherical space organizes itself according to its density. The process of sedimentation pushes bodies (spatial anomalies) into density spheres (layers) based on their density of space, to which they belong based on their density of space. Through the process of sedimentation, a system of open, non-symmetric layers with increasing or decreasing spatial density is formed in space. In each density layer (sphere), there is a different density of space.
2.10.
The layer (in which bodies have similar physical
density of space) is called a
2.11.
Inhomogeneous spherical space can have two states.
2.12. On (Figure 2.1. c), there is a simplified schematic representation of a spherical space with the characteristic of a low pressure (TN). The density of space increases from the shell towards the center, and the pressure decreases (T1<T2 <T3). The density phases (S1, S2, S3) formed by the sedimentation process are separated from each other by interphases (MF12, MF23...). The center of the low pressure (TN) forms the density bottom (density bottom = dno) of the system. The opposite is true for pressure high (TV).
2.13.
„The basic curve (trajectory) in spherical space
is a
2.14.
## 2.15. Relationships between surface
and body
2.15. Surface area is a necessary condition for the existence of a body. The surface of a body is a pressure organ. The surface of a body has a centripetal side (d), exerting pressure towards the center of the body, and a centrifugal side (o) exerting pressure away from the center of the body. The pressure from the centrifugal surface of the body is called surface pressure. It is the pressure exerted by the (external) surface of the body on the external surface of another body. Obr. 2.2.
2.16.
2.17.
The space density of a particle is determined
by the sum of the shell density and the density of what is beneath
the inner (centripetal) side of the shell. 2.18. The bodies (a, b, c, e) and particles (S, T, G) are situated in an oriented pressure field (OT) acting from „above“ (centripetally). The oriented pressure (OT) pushes on the surfaces of particles (S, T, G), and causes their (centripetal) movement. The bodies (a, b, c, e) differ in their surfaces. 2.19. The surface of physical body (a) is closed. A closed body has only a centrifugal surface (o). Nothing can be inserted into such a body, nor can anything be taken out of it. Pressure (OT) acts on surface (a) and can cause it to move. 2.20. The surface of physical body (b) and (c) can be described as „semi-closed.“ Particles (S, T, G) can be pushed into bodies (b), (c) by pressure (OT), but they cannot escape from the bodies. The pressure (OT) on the (upper) surface of the particles is greater than the pressure (d) from the surfaces of bodies (b) and (c) on the (lower) surface of the particles. The particles (physical bodies) are not a source of any forces and cannot escape from the bodies (b, c) by themself and remaining inside bodies (b, c). 2.21. There is a difference in the shape of the surface area between bodies (b) and (c). Body (c) has the shape of a cone (sedimentation cone). The shape of the surface area of body (c) and the pressure (d) from its surface do not allow particles with a large volume (S) to reach the bottom of the cone. Only the densest particles (G) with the smallest volume and surface area reach the bottom of the cone. The centripetal surface of body (c) „sorts“ the particles according to density. In the „axis“ of cone (c), a region of decreasing pressure (N1) is formed. 2.22. The narrowing spiral surface of body (e) is open. Something can be inserted (pressed) into body (e), and something can also be ejected from it. Particles (S, T, G) are pushed (OT) into body (e). The space density of the particle increases along the spiral (N2) towards the bottom (dno) of body (e). Body (e) is open. Some particles are pushed out from the corresponding density sphere of the body (e) back into the environment, where layers with decreasing density of space are formed, which are separate from each other by interphases (MF 1-2, MF 2-3).
2.23.
The bodies (a, b, c, e) are mass bodies. Mass bodies (composed of atoms) can be
viewed as physical bodies or mechanical bodies.
[11]
From this perspective, it is necessary to distinguish
between the mechanical surface of mass bodies and the physical
surface of mass bodies (Fig. 7.8).
2.24.
It is also necessary to distinguish between physical
pressure and mechanical pressure acting on mass bodies.
2.25.
The surface area of one mechanical body (composed
of atoms) exerts on the surface area of another mechanical body
by (centrifugal) surface pressure. This is the physical pressure
by which one mechanical body „defends“ itself to other mechanical
body from penetrating inside. The surface pressure of a mechanical
body is the sum of the surface pressures of the atoms forming
its surface.
[13]
2.26.
2.27.
It is necessary to distinguish between
[1]
This is not a critique of Euclidean geometry!
The mathematician and geometer Euclid (325 BC – 260 BC) devised
this geometry to solve abstract geometric problems. Euclidean
geometry is irreplaceable in mechanics, technology, architecture,
and other fields. Euclidean (virtual) geometry is not suitable
for describing the real (real) spherical space.
[2]
„The false illusion of linearity leads
to incorrect notions and errors in physics (astronomy). Linearity
does not exist at any scale in the Universe (in any reference
frame). The idea (originating from mathematics) that space can
be divided into „infinitely small“ linear parts is false in physics. If the fundamental body
in (continuous) space is non-homogeneous, non-symmetric, and
spherically shaped, particle there is no place for linearity
in such space. Symmetry about a line or plane can only be applied
in a virtual Euclidean space for some „theoretical bodies“.
The
idea that „mathematics
is an exact, science“ is a false illusion.
Mathematics is
full of non-correct
methods, based
on certain assumptions and simplifications. Mathematics needs numbers. When he doesn't have them,
he must invent
them (eg to invent „mechanical weight of planets“ and
then „dark
matter“ to satisfy the wrong equations
from the
19th century). [3] „The non-homogeneity of space is the fundamental cause of all physical phenomena. In a continuous space composed of (non-homogeneous, non-symmetric) particles, homogeneity cannot be imagined. If even a small part of the (continuous) space were homogeneous, the entire Universe would have to be homogeneous. Any movement immediately disrupts homogeneity. [4] Spherical material space is not „curved“ virtual, immaterial, linear Euclidean space! In spherical space, all surfaces are naturally spherical.
[5]
Density in the
book always refers to [6] The greater the difference in the density of space between two phases, the narrower the interphase between them (e.g., the water surface = a narrow interfphase between the sparse air and the significantly denser water). The smaller the difference in the density of space between two phases, the wider and less distinct the interphase between them (e.g. a significantly wider and less distinct interphase between the salty water and the fresh water). [7] A spiral toroid is created by rotating an open irregular fractal spiral around a center that does not lie on the spiral. This results in an open surface (which has volume).
[8]
[9] In the example, simple mass bodies are shown for simplicity. Mass bodies = bodies „made“ of atoms. [10] Only for (not quite the right) idea can (open) particles be compared to (closed) balls. (S) is an inflatable balloon with a thin rubber surface and a large volume of air and high internal pressure. (T) can be likened to a football ball. More rubber, less air volume, lower internal pressure. (G) is a golf ball. Only rubber surrounded by air (density and temperature bottom). Rubber = dense space, air = sparse space. Denser or more sparse form of the same. In the subsequent text of the book, these particles are sometimes very roughly (incorrectly) compared to particles (S) = light, (T) = heat, (R) = X-ray particles, (G) = gamma particles. When we pump air into the football ball (we heat up the particle T), it will gradually transform into an inflatable balloon (particle S). The „inflated“ balloon (S) will have a larger volume, be more sparse, have higher pressure inside, and its shell (rubber) will be thinner and denser (to maintain a higher inside pressure). The ball is a closed mechanical vessel. A particle is an open physical body. The particle cannot be mechanically compressed; it can only be heated or cooled. When there is higher pressure (heat) in the environment than in the particle, pressure flows from the environment into the particle. When there is higher pressure in the particle than in the environment, pressure flows from the particle into the environment (Fig. 4.1.). Pressure (heat) are again just only particles. Everything is „created“ and everything is mediated of particles that only differ in their spatial density. [11] Atoms are closed bodies composed of non-closed particles (by definition). Mass bodies are always composed of atoms mixed with plasma (by definition). Atoms (composed of particles) are a continuous part of space (also composed of particles). The surface pressure of an atom is formed by the sum of the surface pressures of the particles that make up the surface of the atom (Fig. 7.1.). [12] For physical pressure (heat), the surface pressure of a mechanical body is not an obstacle. When the temperature (pressure) inside the body is lower than the surrounding environment, plasma particles (heat) flow into the mechanical body (between its atoms). When the temperature (pressure) inside the body is higher than the surrounding environment, plasma particles (heat) flow from the body into thesurrounding environment. The plasma particles exert pressure with their surface areas on the surface of the mass body. These are oriented pressure impulses. It is not a „permanent“ pressure. The particles rotate and „vibrate“ at the same time (Fig. 6.1). The motion of the (non-symmetrical) surface area of the particle is faster in one direction than in the opposite direction. Faster motion of the particle's surface = greater pressure impulse.
[13]
Do not confuse |